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The focus of the programme was to urge the Rajasthan government to adopt ‘agriculture export’ as a business opportunity for boosting livelihood and farmers’ income

APEDA in association with Agriculture University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan organised a programme where more than 430 farmers, students, traders and other stakeholders had participated. The orientation programme for start-ups in agri-export was aimed at creating awareness among farmers and agriculture students in the western region of Rajasthan on agri-exports. The focus of the programme was to urge the Rajasthan government to adopt ‘agriculture export’ as a business opportunity for boosting livelihood and farmers’ income.

 

The aim of the programme organised on July 28, 2021, through virtual mode was to support the farmers, agriculture students and other stakeholders in the export-oriented supply chain which generate rural employment. During the programme, APEDA officials explained issues around agricultural exports and challenges in the export-oriented agri supply chain.  

 

APEDA officials also explained various government initiatives on agriculture exports such as Financial Assistance Schemes, Risk Management in agriculture export, RBI Guidelines, pesticides issues, digital traceability in the agri supply chain, etc.

 

The Agriculture Department of Rajasthan, Agricultural University, Jodhpur and other state government officials discussed the agriculture export potential from the west zone of Rajasthan especially in the crops such as barley, caster, legumes, mustard, pomegranate, dates, etc. The programme also discussed the export potential of commercial crops including Capparis decidua, (referred to locally as karira or kerda), Acacia Senegal (Kummat), Prosopis cenararia (Sangari).

 

Besides the export potential of cumin, isabgol, pomegranate, anise seeds, caster, guargam, hina etc were discussed. The programme emphasised the need for automation, mechanisation in agriculture for achieving quality products that would enhance competitiveness in the international market. The officials from Rajasthan Agricultural Marketing Board (RSAMB) have participated in the meet.

 

APEDA has been focusing on a collaborative approach to bring synergy with several organisations and institutions having inherent professional and specialised expertise in different areas for capacity building of various stakeholders and providing solutions for addressing some of the identified interventions for the development of Agriculture and its export enhancement in consonance with the objectives set under Agri Export Policy (AEP) announced by Government of India in 2018.

 

The focus of the programme was to

Govt adopts measures for preservation and promotion of traditional agro-products in the country

The National Gene Bank (NGB) at ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (ICAR- NBPGR), New Delhi is currently conserving more than 4.52 lakh accessions of various crops of which over 0.92 lakh accessions are of indigenous/local/traditional varieties and landraces. This information was given by Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Narendra Singh Tomar in Rajya Sabha.

 

ICAR-NBPGR has evaluated 635 designated rice landraces from Assam, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Chhattisgarh for major nutrients. Based on farmer’s preference, local demand and nutritional value of 24 landraces from Assam are identified for promotion under a trading name ’Native Basket’ of these marketing of four landraces namely Amona Bao, Kola Joha, Boga Bet Guti, Ronga Bao is already started, similarly, two landraces from Himachal Pradesh are identified for promotion under the trade name ’Mountain Grain’ and in Chhattisgarh 15 rice landraces are promoted through Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidalaya (IGKV), Raipur under the brand name “Indira”. 

 

Geographical Indicator (GI) is obtained for popular small seed aromatic rice ’Jeera Phool’ and application for GI is submitted for landrace “Nagri Dhrubraj”.

 

To improve the access to good seeds, 23 community seed banks were established at the community level involving KVKs and Self Help Groups in remote and tribal areas of the country. A total of 26 community seed banks conserving >4000 native landraces and farmers’ varieties of many food crops have been strengthened and established ICAR-NBPGR and Biodiversity International are jointly executing UN Environment implemented a project entitled ’Mainstreaming Agricultural biodiversity conservation and utilisation of the agriculture sector to ensure ecosystem services and reduce vulnerability’ in seven states and Union Territory of Ladakh, to make communities more resilient to climate variation by growing more variety of crops. Under the project, More than 25,000 farmers across four agro-ecoregions covering 120,000 ha in India maintain and use 20 crops including rice of traditional local varieties, many of which were lost or got degenerated due to non-cultivation and poor maintenance.

 

Besides, in the United Nation- Global Environment Facility (UNEP-GEF) project, NBPGR, Biodiversity International and other institutes are also executing “Seeds for Needs” project using crowdsourcing (CS) and Participatory Varietal Selection trials (PVS) approaches to look for the “best set” of traditional varieties of wheat and rice farmers across four states (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, UP and MP). So far, a set of selected varieties of wheat (44) and rice (34) were promoted with 15000 and 7000 wheat and rice farmers, respectively. 

 

The government has also been promoting traditional ways of crop cultivation through dedicated schemes of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) and Mission Organic Value Chain Development in North East Region (MOVCDNER). In addition, organic cultivation on either side of River Ganga, natural farming, large area certification and support for individual farmers have also been introduced under PKVY to increase organic coverage using organic/ bio inputs for the production of organic products.  

 

Govt adopts measures for preservation and promotion

Agri exporters from remote districts of India connected to the international buyers from the US, the UAE and Japan

Under the Districts as Export Hubs initiative, the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) under the Department of Commerce in partnership with the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) and Invest India conducted a two-day virtual outreach event connecting exporters from the districts to the buyers outside India. Following the opening ceremony, a virtual trade fair was held where 197 exhibitors participated from the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.

 

The event provided a platform to small sellers from areas earlier not known for exports, apart from large exporters from India. 28 stalls from Jammu and Kashmir and five from Ladakh were highlighted in the exhibition. The virtual outreach event saw a footfall of over 300 visitors and importers from domestic and international buyers inclusive of the US, the UAE and Japan. 

 

Putting a spotlight on agricultural products under five categories namely spices and tea, food grains and agro-products, fruits and vegetables, dry fruits, and processed food, three buyer-seller interactive sessions were held with the support of Indian Embassies from the US, the UAE, and Japan. Few leading supermarkets such as Spinney, Walmart, and Lulu also participated during the interactive sessions and showed keen interest in India’s agricultural products.

 

The event marked the beginning of a series of events to be held to boost India’s exports and commemorate 75 years of India Independence under the Districts as Export Hubs initiative.

 

Agri exporters from remote districts of India

The spading machine has reduced vibration and enhances the comfort of the tractor operator

CSIR-CMERI, Durgapur has launched tractor-mounted spading machine. The spading machine developed at CMERI reduces the cost of tillage operation and improves its effectiveness. The design of the CSIR-CMERI spading mechanism is advantageous in reducing vibration and enhancing the comfort of the tractor operator.

 

Prof(Dr) Harish Hirani, Director, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, briefed about the tractor operated spading machine and its application in seedbed preparation. The first activity in any crop cultivation practice is the tilling of the soil to make a desirable seedbed for the germination of seeds or seedlings. Hirani explained that a major part of tractor energy is utilised in seedbed operation leading to high operating costs for farmers. 

 

Jagdish Manikrao, a senior scientist, who worked on the development of this technology, under the guidance of Hirani, explained the working and other technicalities of the machine. He stated that as compared to other tillage implements, the machine forms no compaction of subsurface soil and improves the aerobic quality and drainage of the soil. The machine can also incorporate large organic material due to its homogeneous working and uniform turning of the soil. The spading machine is powered by tractor PTO which rotates at a standard speed of 540 rpm, power is transmitted to the crank through the speed reduction gear. This machine has a working width of 1800 mm and it can be operated with any tractor having power greater than 45 HP.

 

Dr Pradeep Rajan, Sr Principal Scientist, Head, Farm Machinery and Precision Agriculture further elaborated that the main advantage is less compaction in subsurface soil layers thereby eliminating the need for sub-soiling. This is because soil breakup during spading is similar to manual hoeing as it imitates the manual soil cutting action.

 

Hirani dedicated the newly developed agricultural technology to the nation and encouraged the MSME’s, who were having manufacturing facilities for tillage equipment like MB Plough, Rotavator etc., and startups to take the technology to the Indian small and marginal farmers for maximum utilisation.      

 

The spading machine has reduced vibration and

The connection of soil health to the quality and quantity of the crops is linked directly

Biotechnology is the use of organisms, especially microorganisms to perform industrial processes. Today biotechnology is used in agriculture as it provides tools to the farmers to make their products cheaper and more manageable. According to www.researchgate.net, soil biotechnology can be defined as the study and manipulation of soil microorganisms and metabolic processes to optimise crop productivity. The quality of human health is directly dependent on the nutrition provided by ‘healthy foods’ grown in soils under sustainable conditions. The connection of soil health to the quality and quantity of the crops is linked directly. In short, the availability of food relies on the soil.

The soil has a dynamic ecosystem existing within it which includes microscopic or large organisms that perform vital roles such as nutrient cycling, controlling weeds and pests and holding in nutrients. Furthermore, soil provides the physical, chemical, and biological environment for sustaining plant growth. In India, the global population is projected to exceed 10 billion by 2050, coupled with climate change and competition for resources food security is a growing concern. Increasing the intensity of agriculture and farming won’t be enough to meet the future demand. Therefore, different approaches should be made, the increasing severity of this problem has led to important discoveries in the field of biotechnology which is one of the best solutions to combat the growing demand for food crops.

The main goal of using biotechnology in the field of soil management is to increase the carbon content, enhance water infiltration, ensure the availability of water at plant-root zones, reduce erosion, create a positive nutrient budget, and encourage beneficial organisms.

Biological soil conditioners is an example of biotechnology being used to enhance the quality of the soil. A variety of biological products such as bio-fertilisers and biostimulants are used to improve soil fertility. A bacterial fungus called mycorrhiza is added as an inoculum, which enables higher water and nutrient absorption. Compost tea is another example of how biotechnology can be used to improve the quality of the soil. The product of the compost is contained within a porous bag suspended in recirculating water within a container or a commercially available ‘tea brewer’. This is done to maintain the aerobic conditions of the soil. The fermented end products contain living microorganisms cultured from the compost, microbial metabolites that work to inhibit plant pathogens in the soil and enhance its quality.

Studies have shown that genetically modified crops indirectly impact the structure, function, and diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities. Rhizosphere microorganisms play key roles in the soil-root environment by providing essential ecosystem services that benefit the soil. Some of these benefits include the decomposition of crop residues, maintaining biochemical cycles within the soil food webs and chains, and maintaining productivity. Transgenic crops such as cotton and corn are engineered to incorporate the gene, CrylAb, which codes for the production of an insecticidal protein that is released into the soil via root exudation, this helps enhance the quality of the soil.

Agriculture is an important factor in our future development to sustain a population of over 10 billion in2050 and to do so we must switch to sustainable practices that use biotechnology and are eco-friendly.   

Saisha Ketkar is a freelance writer from Mumbai

The connection of soil health to the

The agriculture adjusted EBIT margin was at 14.7 per cent

CNH Industrial, a global leader in capital goods, has posted consolidated revenues of $8.9 billion in Q2 2021 (up 60 per cent compared to Q2 2020). The net income was registered at $699 million, adjusted diluted EPS of $0.42 and adjusted EBIT of industrial activities of $699 million (up $757 million). The company has $1.0 billion free cash flow of industrial activities.   

 

The net sales of industrial activities of $8,490 million, was up 65 per cent, with a solid performance from all segments, as a result of higher volumes driven by strong industry demand and price realisation. The adjusted EBIT of industrial activities was reported at $699 million (loss of $58 million in Q2 2020), with all segments up year over year. The agriculture adjusted EBIT margin was at 14.7 per cent. 

 

The company registered an adjusted net income of $583 million, with adjusted diluted earnings per share of $0.42 (adjusted net loss of $85 million in Q2 2020, with adjusted diluted loss per share of $0.07). The reported income tax expense was at $188 million, with an adjusted effective tax rate (adjusted ETR) of 25 per cent.

 

Scott Wine, CEO, CNH Industrial, “Our industry is clearly in a cyclical upturn and the sound fundamental performance of our businesses and operations is enabling us to capture much of the benefit. The robust environment contributed to growth across AG, CE, and C&SV order books, which also reflected the excellent Q2 performance of each of these businesses.”     

 

 

 

 

The agriculture adjusted EBIT margin was at

Researchers at Penn State screened nearly 500 lines of corn over four years in South Africa

According to Penn State researchers, the discovery of a gene that regulates the angle of root growth in corn is a new tool to enable the breeding of deeper-rooting crops with an enhanced ability to take up nitrogen.

 

The gene, called ZmCIPK15- a moniker indicating where it is located in the genome and how it functions- was found to be missing in a naturally occurring mutant corn line that grows roots at steeper angles that make them go deeper into the soil. They identified the gene using a technique called a genome-wide association study, which involves a painstaking statistical analysis of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different plant lines to see what genes are associated with a trait.

 

Identifying a gene that controls the angle of root growth in corn- influencing the depth to which roots forage- is important because deeper roots have a greater ability to capture nitrogen, according to research team leader Jonathan Lynch, distinguished professor of plant science in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences.

 

Researchers at Penn State screened nearly 500 lines of corn over four years in South Africa to find the gene regulating the angle of roots. Field experiments at Penn State’s Russell E Larson Agricultural Research Center and greenhouse experiments at the University Park campus were conducted to confirm the phenotype of the mutant and wild-type plants and to test the functional utility of changes in root angle for nitrogen capture.

 

Roots of selected plants were excavated and measured, validating the functional importance of the ZmCIPK15 gene. It caused an approximate 10-degree change in root angle, noted Hannah Schneider, a former postdoctoral scholar in the Lynch lab, now a faculty member at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, who spearheaded the research.

 

In findings recently published in Plant, Cell and Environment, the researchers reported that a steeper root growth angle markedly improved nitrogen capture. In field studies under suboptimal nitrogen availability, the cipk15 mutant with steeper growth angles had 18 per cent greater shoot biomass and 29 per cent greater shoot nitrogen accumulation compared to the wild type, after 70 days of growth.

Researchers at Penn State screened nearly 500

The partnership will facilitate the dissemination of PAU-developed technology to maize farmers

The Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) inked a pact with Nutranta Seeds, Sunam, Punjab for commercialisation of maize hybrid PMH 13. Dr NS Bains, Director of Research and Telha Jameel signed the Memorandum of Agreement on behalf of their respective organisations.

Dr Surinder Sandhu, Incharge, Maize Section, said that PMH 13 is a high yielding hybrid with an average yield of 24 (q/acre). It matures in 97 days. It is moderately resistant to maydis leaf blight, charcoal rot and maize stem borer, she added.

Dr GS Mangat, Additional Director of Research (Crop Improvement), said that this public-private partnership will certainly facilitate to the dissemination of PAU-developed technology to farmers.

Dr MIS Gill, Dean, College of Agriculture; Dr AS Dhatt, Additional Director of Research (Horticulture and Food Science) and Dr PPS Pannu, Additional Director of Research (Natural Resource and Plant Health Management) congratulated Dr Sandhu and her team for commercialising the technology.

The partnership will facilitate the dissemination of

Begins growth initiatives after completion of Go Public Transaction and Financing

Sprout AI, a technologically focused, sustainable vertical farming company, has developed scalable controlled aeroponic cultivation habitats. Sprout AI’s technology will provide solutions to the ever-increasing complexities surrounding the current and future supply of sustainable global food production and supply chain.

 

Sprout AI is committed to both environmental and social sustainability. With a lowered carbon footprint, Sprout AI provides solutions to many of the negative environmental impacts generated by conventional farming methods, including over fertilisation, long transport distances and biodiversity disturbances. Social sustainability is enhanced through increased food security from a simplified supply chain, especially during COVID-19, higher density production in a world with declining arable land per capita, and a food supply less susceptible to drought, floods, wildfires, disease and overall climate change.

 

The company’s vision is to be a leader in sustainable vertical cultivation technology by ensuring each harvest is of high quality, high yield, and with minimal product variability. The adaptive AI monitored aeroponic system generates less waste and requires a fraction of the water needed for outdoor, aquaponic, or hydroponic farming. As growth statistics from across the globe are collected, the learning technology will continue to perfect the growing formula, reducing the growth cycle and increasing future output. Additionally, the self-contained habitats reduce cross-contamination and disease which reduces the risk of large crop failures.

 

The Sprout AI habitats are highly relevant in urban and remote areas alike, and can be assembled in any structure throughout the world that meets, or can meet, food-grade requirements, mitigating the need for a purpose-built structure and allowing it to take advantage of virtually any vacant indoor space.

 

Sprout AI is focussed on a two-pronged approach to continue to commercialize its technology. Both paths are intended to provide ongoing, recurring revenue; (i) turnkey unit sales to third parties with ongoing support, and (ii) the construction of proprietary vertical farms owned 100 per cent by Sprout AI or in a joint venture or partner format. These proprietary farms will utilise Sprout AI technology and be branded under Beyond Farms, a trademark owned by Sprout AI.

 

Since completing the Go Public Transaction and financing recently, Sprout AI has aggressively expanded its resource base and has begun to fulfil its first third party sales of Sprout AI units. Sprout AI has also begun discussions with potential partners for the construction of a sustainably operated Beyond Farms vertical farming facility in Canada, and potentially other jurisdictions around the world.

 

Begins growth initiatives after completion of Go

The company is now in more control of important aspects of the risk mitigation process and has sketched out two basic scenarios going forward

Bayer provided an update on its five-point plan to address future Roundup litigation risk after its May 27th decision to withdraw from the national class process. The company is now in more control of important aspects of the risk mitigation process and has sketched out two basic scenarios going forward to provide a path to the closure of this litigation. The first scenario is based on obtaining a favourable decision by the US Supreme Court on a cross-cutting issue like federal preemption which would effectively and largely end the US Roundup litigation. The second scenario assumes that the Supreme Court either declines to hear the Hardeman case or issues a ruling in favour of the plaintiff – in that case, the company would activate its claims administration programme.

 

The company sees good chances for the first scenario and believes there are strong arguments for the US Supreme Court to accept the case and ultimately render a supporting verdict. However, Bayer is also prepared for the second scenario to manage anticipated claims, through settlement and litigation, to ultimately bring an end to this litigation. For this second scenario, the company posts an additional provision of a gross amount of $4.5 billion (3.8 billion euros), i.e. before tax and discounting in the second quarter of 2021, reflecting the company’s potential long-term exposure.

 

The company will file its petition seeking Supreme Court review of the Hardeman case in August. If the Supreme Court grants review, the Court will likely render a final decision in 2022. Given this impending schedule, Bayer will be very selective in its settlement approach in the coming months and will not entertain any further settlement discussions when and if the Supreme Court grants review.

 

In case of a negative Supreme Court outcome, Bayer would set up a professionally run claims’ administration programme that will come with pre-determined compensation values whose amounts will be similar to the values for current inventory settlements, but net of plaintiffs’ lawyers commission. The programme would address eligible individuals directly, who used Roundup previously and develop NHL over the next 15 years. This would cover any alleged NHL latency period, although regulators consistently conclude that the large body of science does not support a causal relationship between NHL and glyphosate and despite substantially different scientific opinions on the latency.

 

As part of the five-point plan, the company will also take additional steps to help close the door on this litigation and ensure that any claims brought by individuals who use Roundup in the future are few and unlikely to succeed. These measures include that the company and its partners will replace its glyphosate-based products in the US residential Lawn & Garden market with new formulations that rely on alternative active ingredients beginning in 2023, subject to a timely review by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state counterparts.

 

Moreover, the company will engage in discussions with EPA about Roundup labels to provide more information to users about the science as an additional element towards ensuring even more informed purchasing and application decisions. It will also set up a new website with scientific studies relevant to Roundup’s safety that will provide even more transparency to purchasers about the products they use. The website is expected to be launched by the end of 2021.

The company is now in more control

Underserved farmers can now insure crops with rapid claim resolution through mobile phones using the Wingsure app

SRI International announced that its insurtech venture spinout, Wingsure, is expanding its artificial intelligence (AI) and augmented reality (AR) capabilities to deliver instant access to personalised insurance products for underserved small farmers and communities worldwide.

 

Wingsure is an insurtech platform that revolutionises how small farmers and rural customers leverage insurance and financial products to transform their lives and livelihood. Wingsure delivers instant access to all through personalised mobile-based insurance products and services. It supports economic empowerment with transparency and promotes sustainability through modern agricultural practices that preserve and enrich the environment.

 

“The benefits of artificial intelligence need to be accessible to everyone—not just the big corporations,” said Todd Stavish, Vice President and Managing Director, SRI Ventures. “Bringing SRI’s computer vision and natural language processing technology into the hands of small agriculture allows Wingsure to reach communities that need this technology the most.”

 

Wingsure connects insurance companies, brokers and agri-businesses with small farmers worldwide through their mobile devices. Wingsure’s application leverages AI and machine learning (ML) to rapidly process insurance claims with the aid of SRI’s computer vision, geospatial and AR technology, which can confirm crop damage, identify the validity of insurance claims and make a prompt settlement.

 

In addition to its advanced AI and ML, Wingsure combines voice prompts and natural language processing to allow farmers to speak in their native language. The platform can be scaled to integrate with existing mobile communication platforms and claims that previously took 3 to 12 months to complete can be verified and processed in minutes.

 

“Farmers are the foundation of our society, but many farmers worldwide are exposed to risks that could cost them their livelihood and their land. We now have the technology to protect these small farmers anywhere in the world,” said Avi Basu, Founder and CEO, Wingsure. “Not only can we insure them, but by applying this kind of advanced technology, Wingsure can help farmers become more successful growers.”

 

The initial implementation will focus on India where 70 per cent of households are dependent on agriculture for their living. Many are located in remote locations without access to financial services and are unable to insure against crop failure or other unexpected events. Wingsure’s mobile platform provides services that were previously inaccessible to this enormous market, where 800 million people are agri dependent.

 

Underserved farmers can now insure crops with

Farmers are being trained on conservation, improvement and use of traditional/ indigenous varieties through a participatory approach

Indigenous varieties of rice are being promoted through varietal improvement programmes of ICAR. During the past few years, 574 indigenous varieties of rice have been propagated and tested at more than 10,000 farmers’ fields, involving state agricultural universities, Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and Non-Government Organisations through a project titled ’Mainstreaming Agricultural biodiversity conservation and utilisation of the agriculture sector to ensure ecosystem services and reduce vulnerability.’ The information was provided by the Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Narendra Singh Tomar.

 

Farmers are trained on conservation, improvement and use of traditional/ indigenous varieties through a participatory approach. Further, for access to seeds of these indigenous varieties, community seed banks have been established at the community level involving KVKs and Self Help Groups in remote and tribal areas of the country. A total of 26 community seed banks conserving >4000 native landraces and farmers’ varieties of different food crops including rice have been strengthened and established. 

 

Communities and farmers conserving and promoting indigenous rice varieties have been conferred with Genome Savour awards by Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority (PPV&FRA) and the following awards have been given since 2009-10:

  • Plant Genome Saviour Community Award (Rs. 10 lakh each ): 13
  • Plant Genome Saviour Farmer Rewards (Rs. 1.5 lakhs each): 12
  • Plant Genome Saviour Farmer Recognitions (Rs. 1.0 lakh each): 19 

Five rice varieties viz., Lalat and Improved Lalat (GI value: 54) as low GI and Swarna a, Sambha Mahsuri and Shaktiman (GI value <60) as intermediate GI have been identified. All these varieties are in the seed chain and are under cultivation by the farmers.

 

The details of indigenous rice varieties/ germplasm are available with ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi. A total of 45,107 indigenous varieties/landraces of rice are conserved in the National Gene Bank at ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi. In addition, 1645 farmer’s varieties are registered with PPV&FRA. 

Farmers are being trained on conservation, improvement

The herbicide controls onion crops from narrow-leaf weeds and as well as broad-leaf weeds

Dhanuka Agritech has launched ONEKIL for Indian onion growers. ONEKIL is a 9(3) molecule and is a complete solution for weed-free onion crops. ONEKIL is a postemergence, systemic herbicide that controls narrow leaf weeds as well as broadleaf weeds. Once ONEKIL is absorbed by the onion crop’s foliage and root system, it provides longer residual control to most of the weeds.

Moreover, ONEKIL lasts for one to two hours and has effective rain fastness. ONEKIL has a dual mode of action and provides translocation activity. When it is absorbed through leaves, it moves downwards through the phloem, and when absorbed by roots, and moves upward through the xylem.

The herbicide controls onion crops from narrow-leaf

The project will conduct a study on the evapotranspiration mechanisms and partitioning, atmospheric CO2 fluxes over tea plantations

Intending to execute an Inter-Institutional Collaborative Project on ’Evapotranspiration Modelling, Water Budgeting and Assessment of CO2 flux over tea plantations in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu,’ the ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC), Dehradun, Uttarakhand signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad.

The ICAR-IISWC, Research Centre, Udhagamandalam is the collaborating unit with the Central Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Calicut and National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad.

Dr M Madhu, Director, ICAR-IISWC, Dehradun, Uttarakhand and Dr Venkteshwar Rao, Joint Director, NRSC, Hyderabad signed the MoU on the behalf of their respective organisations.

As per the MoU, the present project will conduct a study on the evapotranspiration mechanisms and partitioning, atmospheric CO2 fluxes that would guide to understand the energy partitioning over tea which is a major plantation in the temperate mountainous ecosystem of Nilgiris from the Western Ghats.

The data generated on evapotranspiration, soil-vegetation-atmospheric characteristics, soil and atmospheric CO2 from the temperate mountainous ecosystem will be used in the ICAR-IISWC’s research activities and form a database under the ’National Hydrology Project (NHP)’ of the NRSC (ISRO).
 

The project will conduct a study on